The Sea-level Response to Ice Sheet Evolution (SeaRISE) effort explores the sensitivity of the current generation of ice sheet models to external forcing to gain insight into the potential future contribution to sea level from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. All participating models (including Elmer/Ice) simulated the ice sheet response to different types of external forcings. In Insights into spatial sensitivities of ice mass response to environmental change from the SeaRISE ice sheet modeling project II: Greenland, an analysis of the spatial response of the Greenland ice sheet is presented, and the impact of model physics and spin-up on the projections is explored. As one of the results, Figure 6 from the paper shows the ensemble mean thickness change from the (a) control and (b) standard deviation resulting from the S2 experiment (doubled basal sliding) after 100 simulated years, along with the thickness contribution from the (c) maximum (Elmer/Ice) and (d) minimum (PISM) models.
Reference: Nowicki et al., 2013. Insights into spatial sensitivities of ice mass response to environmental change from the SeaRISE ice sheet modeling project II: Greenland. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 118 (2), 1025-1044, doi:10.1002/jgrf.20076. [link to paper]
In Capabilities and performance of Elmer/Ice, a new-generation ice sheet model, published in Geoscience Model Development, we summarise the almost 10 yr of development performed by different groups. We only focus on the past developments that are relevant for simulations of three-dimensional ice sheets. This paper presents the governing equations implemented in Elmer/Ice, the associated boundary conditions, other useful equations (such as the equation to evaluate the age of the ice), the inverse methods implemented in Elmer/Ice, some technical aspects related to the resolution of these equations in the framework of the FE method, some standard convergence and scalability tests to verify the efficiency of Elmer/Ice and finally, we provide some insights into the future planned developments.
Reference: Gagliardini, O., T. Zwinger, F. Gillet-Chaulet, G. Durand, L. Favier, B. de Fleurian, R. Greve, M. Malinen, C. Martín, P. Råback, J. Ruokolainen, M. Sacchettini, M. Schäfer, H. Seddik, and J. Thies, 2013. Capabilities and performance of Elmer/Ice, a new-generation ice sheet model, Geosci. Model Dev., 6, 1299-1318, doi:10.5194/gmd-6-1299-2013.
In the paper "Enhanced basal lubrication and the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea-level rise", by Shannon et al., recently published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS), it is found that basal lubrication induced by an increase of surface melt-water is likely to have a minor role in sea-level rise compared to other effects like iceberg production and surface melt.
Elmer/Ice was one of the four ice sheet models which participated to this study in the framework of the ice2sea project.
More information and a press release can be found on the ice2sea website.
Shannon, S. R., A. J. Payne, I. D. Bartholomew, M. R. van den Broeke, T. L. Edwards, X. Fettweis, O. Gagliardini, F. Gillet-Chaulet, H. Goelzer, M. J. Hoffman, P. Huybrechts, D. W. F. Mair, P. W. Nienow, M. Perego, S. F. Price, C. J. P. Paul Smeets, A. J. Sole, R. S. W. van de Wal, and T. Zwinger, 2013. Enhanced basal lubrication and the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea-level rise, PNAS, doi:10.1073/pnas.1212647110.